Snake identification, major peer reviewed papers, covering most of the world's snakes in terms of classification, taxonomy, nomenclature and identification.

White snake

Only proper scientific papers that are peer reviewed and comply with both the mandatory and voluntary parts of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature are linked below.
The relevant papers deal with the snakes identified in the linking text here.
If you rely on these papers, please cite the source correctly and in accordance with international Copyright laws and the directives within the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature as published by the ICZN.

Basking snake

Specific Snake Groups - The most important peer reviewed scientific papers.

Elapid Snakes.

Death Adders (Acanthophis spp.) a key to every species and subspecies.

North New Guinea Death Adders (Acanthophis spp.).

Kimberley, West Australia Death Adders (Acanthophis lancasteri Wells and Wellington, 1985).

Ringed Brown Snakes (Genus: Notopseudonaja Wells, 2002.

Tiger Snakes.

The snakes within the Australian genus Brachyurophis Günther, 1863.

Australian Copperheads (Genus Austrelaps Worrell, 1963) (sympatry in species).

Australian Copperheads (Genus Austrelaps Worrell, 1963) (breeding in captivity).

Australian Rough-scaled Snakes (Genus Tropidechis Günther, 1863).

The Kraits (Genus Bungarus Daudin, 1803) (sensu lato.

The elapid genus Salomonelaps McDowell, 1970 from the Solomon Islands.

The elapid genus Loveridegelaps McDowell, 1970 from the Solomon Islands.

The species of snakes within the Australian genus Narophis Worrell, 1961.

The Australian “White-lipped Snakes” of the genus Drysdalia Worrell, 1961, (sensu lato) .

The species of snakes within the Simoselaps littoralis (Storr, 1968) species complex from south-west Australia.

The Australian Bandy Bandy Vermicella Gray, 1841 from eastern Australia.

The Australian Bandy Bandy Vermicella Gray, 1841 from north-west Australia.

The Crowned Snakes Cacophis Günther, 1863 from east Australia.

The Australian Snake Genus Denisonia Krefft, 1869.

The Australian Snake Genus Feresuta Hoser, 2018 from west Australia.

The Australian Whip Snake Genus Demansia.

The Australian Broad-headed Snake Genus Hoplocephalus Wagler, 1830 from east Australia.

The New Guinea Crowned Snakes, genus Aspidomorphus Fitzinger, 1843 (sensu lato).

The Australasian Small-eyed Snakes.

True Cobras in the genus Boulengeria Dollo, 1886 from Africa.

Rinkhals Hemachatus haemachatus (Bonnaterre, 1790) from Southern Africa.

Asian elapids.

Asian Coral Snakes (various genera).

Sea Snakes (Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae: Hydrophiinae).

Turtle-headed Sea Snakes (Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae: Hydrophiinae).


Rattlesnakes in the genera Crotalus Linne, 1758, Uropsophus Wagler, 1830, Cottonus Hoser, 2009, Matteoea Hoser, 2009, Piersonus Hoser, 2009 and Caudisona Laurenti, 1768 (Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from North America.

The Aechmophrys cerastes (Hallowell, 1854) species group of Rattlesnakes (Squamata: Viperidae from North America.

The Crotalus viridis Rafinesque, 1818 and the Uropsophus triseriatus Wagler, 1830 species groups (Squamata:Serpentes:Viperidae:Crotalinae) from North America.

The big reclassification of the Rattlesnakes; species formerly exclusively referred to the Genera Crotalus and Sistrurus from 2009.

Rattlewellsus Hoser, 2012, a new subgenus of Rattlesnake from North America.

The six species of Daboia from south Asia.

Asian Pitvipers.

New species of Viridovipera Malhorta and Thorpe, 2004 from southern Asia.

The pitvipers.

The South-east Asian Pitviper genus Calloselasma Cope, 1860 sensu lato.

The Central American Pitvipers.

The Central American Pitvipers of the genus Adelynhoserserpenae Hoser, 2012.

The Montivipera xanthina complex from south-east Europe and Asia Minor.

The Vipera latastei complex from south-west Europe and nearby Africa.

Vipera ammodytes and Vipera ursinii species groups.

African Adders (Bitis Gray, 1842).

African Tree Vipers of the genus Atheris Cope, 1860.

Gaboon Vipers (Bitis Gray, 1842, subgenus Macrocerastes).

Night Adders from Africa, Causus Wagler, 1830.

South African Vipers, including Bitis (Calechidna) benjaminswilei Hoser, 2022.

Tribes of Vipers.


Reticulated and Timor Pythons, Genus Broghammerus Hoser, 2004.

Australian Pythons.

Children's Pythons (Antaresia, Wells and Wellington, 1984).

Green Pythons (Chondropython).

Papuan Python Liasis (Apodora) papuana Peters and Doria, 1878.



Madagascan Boas.

The New World Tropidophiidae.

The Candoia bibroni species complex (Squamata: Serpentes: Candoiidae: Candoia).

Other snakes.

The Colubrids.

The South-east Asian Ratsnake genus Coelognathus (Serpentes: Colubridae).

The Brown Tree Snakes Boiga irregularis (Bechstein, 1802) complex.

The Boiga cynodon (Boie, 1827) species complex (Serpentes: Colubridae) from south-east Asia.

The genus Telescopus Wagler, 1830 (Serpentes: Colubridae)

South African Slug-eater snakes (Serpentes: Colubroidea: Duberria Fitzinger, 1826).

African Centipede Eating Snakes, Aparallactus Smith, 1849.

Asian Kukri Snakes.

Asian Natricine genera Tropidonophis Jan, 1863 and Amphiesma Duméril, Bibron and Duméril, 1854 (Serpentes:Colubroidae:Natricinae).

Snakes in the Neotropical genus Rhadinaea Cope, 1863 (Serpentes:Colubridae).

Central American Snakes.

Asian Reed Snakes, Genus Calamaria Boie, 1827 (Serpentes: Colubridae: Calamariinae).

Asian Forest Ratsnakes Genus Euprepiophis Boie, 1826 (Serpentes: Colubridae).

African Burrowing Asps, Atractaspis Smith, 1849.

African Colubrids.

Chrismaxwellus Hoser, 2013, a genus of Colubrid snake from south-west Africa .

Ground Snakes from Middle and South America (Serpentes: Dipsadidae).

The Asian Snake Genera Liopeltis Fitzinger, 1843 and Gongylosoma Fitzinger, 1843 (Serpentes:Colubridae).

The Asian Flying Snakes.

Blunt-headed Slug Eating snakes (Aplopeltura Duméril, 1853) from south-east Asia.

The tree snakes Charlespiersonserpeniidae from south Asia and Australasia.

Asiatic Wolf Snakes Lycodon Boie, 1826 (Serpentes: Colubridae).

Uropeltid Snakes from south Asia.

Kukri Snakes of the genus Smythkukri Hoser, 2012 from Asia.

The Xenodermidae from southern Asia.

The Cylindrophid snakes from southern Asia.

Indonesian Euanedwardsserpens subradiatus (Schlegel, 1837) divided six ways.

Pipe snakes Cylindrophis from south-east Asia.

Reed Snakes from Peninsular Malaysia.

Raclitia from Peninsular Malaysia.

Tropidonotus from Morotai Island, Indonesia.

The Asian Snail-eating Snakes (Serpentes:Pareatidae).

The species of Katrinahoserserpenea Hoser, 2012 from northern India, western China Vietnam, Burma, Thailand and Malaysia as well as a new genus of snake associated with Xylophis Beddome, 1878 from India (Serpentes: Pareidae).

The egg-eating snakes in India. Elachistodon westermanni Reinhardt, 1863 (Serpentes, Colubridae).

The African egg-eating snakes, Dasypeltis Wagler, 1830 (Serpentes, Colubridae).

The snakes of the genera Rhadinophis Vogt, 1922 and Katrinahoserea Hoser, 2012.

The Asian Colubrids.

The Slatey Grey Snakes of the genus Stegonotus Duméril, Bibron and Duméril, 1854.

South African Colubrids.

African Whip Snakes.

Slender racers of the genus Yeomansus Hoser, 2012 from central Asia.

The Patch-nosed snakes of North and Central America.

The South American Dipsadid snakes.

North American Garter Snakes Genus Thamnophis Fitzinger, 1843 (Serpentes:Colubridae).

The New World Genus Lampropeltis Fitzinger, 1843 (Serpentes:Colubridae).

The European Grass Snakes and their kin.

File snakes of the genus of the genus Acrochordus Hornstedt, 1787 from Australasia and south-east Asia.

The Blind Snakes of the world.

The Blind Snakes of Australia.

The Blind Snakes of the genus Korniliostyphlops Hoser, 2014 from Socotra Island.

Other important peer reviewed papers on snakes can be found on the site linked here (for Australasian Journal of Herpetology Issue 11 and earlier, as well as from various other scientific journals, none of which are otherwise linked from here.

What snake is that?